The gelatin is a protein derived from the partial collagen hydrolysis. It’s comprised of 18 different amino acids that are held together by peptide bonds. Gelatin’s molecular weight ranges between 20,000 to 250,000 Daltons, depending on the degree of collagen hydrolysis. Gelatin has a great ability to retain water and its helical settings chain are important to the gel formations.
Has a unique characteristic with high glycine, hydroxyproline, and proline content, but deficient in sulfur amino acids. It is not a complete protein due to lack of tryptophan amino acid. However, nutritionally it is an important product, can be used as a protein supplement, in conjunction to other proteins. Due to its applications in dietetic, low calories, cholesterol free and reduced fat products, it is currently a high demand.
The gelatin manufacturing process involves the following basic steps: treatment of collagenous tissue, extraction, purification, concentration, sterilization, cooling and drying. Considering the gelatin molecular form and size, we have other important properties such as isoelectric point (IP). By definition, it is the pH of the protein solution free of migration to the electric field. The gelatins are classified according to the nature of the raw material and the type of hydrolysis.
The differentiation of gelatin is based on gel strength, also known as bloom. Bloom is defined by force applied to the gel, which creates a depression, and the measurement of the depression determines the bloom strength (concentration and temperature are constant). There is a positive correlation between gel concentration and gel strength, the increase of gel concentration, increases firmness and bloom strength.
DESSERTS AND GELATIN CANDY
Gelatin offers versatility in many recipes. From commercial kitchens to an abundance of dessert applications, gelatin comes in various forms such as powder and leaf and read- to-eat dry mix. Gelatin serves as the gelling agent providing great water retention qualities.
That’s possible to prepare many creative and funny desserts using gelatin in recipes easily founded by housewives. And, also, a dessert loved by children, to be fun, beauty and slight, beyond to be recommended in hospitals and industrials cafeterias. There are many applications that require high bloom and fast gelling time. For example, home recipes for the family sweets and desserts for children, food for hospitals and commercial cafeterias, all require high strength gelatin.
Moreover, gelatin is important in candies and sweets. It offers gelation, aeration, formation, and foam stabilization. It acts as an emulsifier in the following products such as, meringue, “maria mole” a dessert like marshmallow, and gelatin gummies. Gelatin provides texture and transparent characteristics in confectionery products. Many sweets with foaming consistency, simply would not be possible without the gelatin.
The molecular structure of gelatin forms a strong hydrogen bond with casein molecules and provides stabilization in dairy systems. High bloom strength is ideal for milk derived products. When used in yogurts as a stabilizer, it lends a smooth and soft texture and prevents syneresis. In ice cream applications, gelatin complements other stabilizers to reduce ice crystal formation, increase resistance to thermal shock and reduce fusion rate. For soft cheese, gelatin improves the texture and plasticity. For desserts such as flan, pudding, and gelling milk, it acts as a gelling agent and stabilizer. In mousse applications, it yields smooth and soft texture by lending its aeration property.
Cured meats such as corned beef and ham requires high gelling power. It acts as a water binder and increases protein yield. In sausages and a variety of pates, lower gelling power is more suitable. It emulsifies the grease and connect the free water, giving the product great plasticity and improves texture. Additionally, it is also used in cooked meat in savory gelatin snacks.
The gelatin is used as an emulsifier in low-fat products. It has a stabilizing function, giving to the product plasticity and velvety mouthfeel.
In juices, wines, and beers, the gelatin is used to clarify the products by precipitation of tannin, pectin, and other impurities. The gelatin’s amphoteric characteristic is applied to remove unstable polyphenolic to prevent turbidity, and sedimentation during storage. It also prevents the development astringent and undesirable flavors.
Gelatin is one of the primary ingredients in soft gel and hard capsules used in pharmaceutical products. Depending on bloom strength, it has the capacity to form hard or flexible layers, acts as a colloid or binding agent. For soft gel capsules, a lower bloom is desirable.
Gelatin can be found in softgels, hard capsules, vitamin coatings and nutritional gummies. The capsules promote safe and effective delivery of medicine, while maintaining ingredient integrity.
The gelatin has other applications such as: papers, photography films, x-rays, test films, microfilms, cinema, aerial imaging and even in holographic pictures. In addition, as “natural adhesive” to restoration and or documents preservation.